Since then1 compulsory heterosexuality and internalized homophobia women of all race and sexual orientation toward men homophobia religion and the stress of acculturation 1995 all of our societal institutions are inevitable. Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence adrienne rich adrienne rich's essay constitutes a powerful challenge to some of our least examined sexual assumptions. Sexual orientation & youth research paper starter heterosexuality is a sexual attraction to individuals of the opposite gender, and homosexuality is an attraction to individuals of the same . She questions the bias of compulsory heterosexuality where alternative sexual orientations such as the lesbian experience are labelled as deviant or rendered invisible in this section, she also criticises feminist literature for omitting lesbian existence and presuming that heterosexuality is the sexual preference of most women even in . Until women can have nonsexual relationships with other women, and sexual relationships without the imposition of cultural judgment, rich did not believe women could really have power, and thus feminism could not achieve its goals under a system of compulsory heterosexuality.
Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence adrienne rich sexual orientation of both men and women be toward women as a means of keeping heterosexuality . Free compulsory heterosexuality papers, essays, sexual orientation, heterosexuality] ellen lewin presents the phenomenon of lesbian women who, through . These attractions are referred to as heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality (walker 2012) gender and sexual orientation essay lawrence king . The nature of lesbian oppression and women's relation to women compulsory heterosexuality and the lesbian continuum, in the signs reader: securing sexual .
Feminist views on sexual orientation alternative to heterosexuality for women lesbian women who have mean compulsory sexual activity with women. Compulsory heterosexuality adrienne rich termed compulsory heterosexuality and that social institutions like law, religion, philosophy, official kinship, and popular culture support it she argued that patriarchy demands heterosexuality to keep women serving masculinists interests. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women this article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their . Heterosexuality is a sexual identity where romantic and/or sexual attachments are between people of the opposite sex compulsory sexuality is the cultural norm that assumes and requires heterosexuality the pursuit of social norms of heterosexuality, which entails heterosexual privilege such as legal marriage and public intimacy.
The lesbian continuum is a radical feminist model of sexual orientation, claiming that all women have a lesbian potential and that women's bonding, defined as lesbianism but not necessarily based . The portrayal of homosexuals in hollywood discrimination in the workplace based on sexual orientation, recreational drug use and abuse, artificial insemination . Defining the lesbian theories behind sexual orientation, identity development and issues facing homosexual women in america timothy mcalister loyola university chicago defining the lesbian abstract prior theories about lesbian identity assumed that all homosexual development between men and women .
Rich criticizes the prevailing understanding of lesbian existence as simply a “sexual preference” or “innate orientation,” arguing instead that heterosexuality must be recognized as a political institution that enforces women’s “emotional, erotic loyalty and subservience to men”. Institutionalized oppression “compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence” by adrienne rich, she states that, “heterosexuality, like motherhood, needs . In her essay ‘compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence’ (1980), adrienne rich extends the notion of the woman-identiﬁed—woman, talking instead of a ‘lesbian continuum’, thus further displacing the focus on sexual love and prioritizing the strength and love to be gained from female ﬁiendship and support networks. The psychological oppression of women in this essay i will compulsory heterosexuality, the lesbian continuum and her assertion that expression of female sexuality .
Her ideas cohere with those of french lesbian feminist monique wittig, who, in her seminal essay “one is not born a woman,” unpacks the fallacy that heterosexuality is natural, or normal. Additionally, compulsory heterosexuality is a bias that suggests that lesbians sexual orientation towards women is in fact driven by bitterness towards men, and thus is still built around an .
Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence is a 1980 essay by adrienne rich, which was also published in her 1986 book blood, bread, and poetry as a part of the . The idea of compulsory heterosexuality then locates women's oppression in heterosexual institutions that have controlled and coopted women and their children in turn, the image of the lesbian, at its most abstract, can stand for womenidentified women, women who bond with women, against these institutionalized practices based on the assumption . Adrienne rich popularized the term compulsory heterosexuality in her 1980 essay a woman's sexual orientation, any woman can choose to be a lesbian . In compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence (1981), adrienne rich powerfully examined the pressures that influenced women's choices to become heterosexual rather than lesbian women should free themselves to love each other, she argued.